Nuvaring Vaginal Ring Merck Sharp & Dohme

Nuvaring Vaginal Ring Merck Sharp & Dohme

Brand:MSD Pharmaceuticals
Product Code:202
Availability:In Stock

FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*

WARNING: CIGARETTE SMOKING AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 How to Use NuvaRing

2.2 How to Start Using NuvaRing

2.3 Deviations from the Recommended Regimen

2.4 In the Event of a Missed Menstrual Period

2.5 Use with Other Vaginal Products

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Thromboembolic Disorders and Other Vascular Problems

5.2 Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

5.3 Liver Disease

5.4 High Blood Pressure

5.5 Vaginal Use

5.6 Gallbladder Disease

5.7 Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolic Effects

5.8 Headache

5.9 Bleeding Irregularities and Amenorrhea

5.10 Inadvertent Urinary Bladder Insertion

5.11 CHC Use Before or During Early Pregnancy

5.12 Depression

5.13 Carcinoma of the Breasts and Cervix

5.14 Effect on Binding Globulins

5.15 Monitoring

5.16 Hereditary Angioedema

5.17 Chloasma

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Effects of Other Drugs on CHCs

7.2 Effects of CHCs on Other Drugs

7.3 Interference with Laboratory Tests

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

8.3 Nursing Mothers

8.4 Pediatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

8.7 Renal Impairment

10 OVERDOSAGE

11 DESCRIPTION

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

15 REFERENCES

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

16.1 Storage

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

*Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed.

 
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION

WARNING: CIGARETTE SMOKING AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use. This risk increases with age, particularly in women over 35 years of age, and with the number of cigarettes smoked. For this reason, CHCs, including NuvaRing, should not be used by women who are over 35 years of age and smoke. [See Contraindications (4).]

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

FOR VAGINAL USE ONLY

NuvaRing® is indicated for use by females of reproductive age to prevent pregnancy.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 How to Use NuvaRing

To achieve maximum contraceptive effectiveness, NuvaRing must be used as directed [see Dosing and Administration (2.2)]. One NuvaRing is inserted in the vagina. The ring is to remain in place continuously for three weeks. It is removed for a one-week break, during which a withdrawal bleed usually occurs. A new ring is inserted one week after the last ring was removed.

The user can choose the insertion position that is most comfortable to her, for example, standing with one leg up, squatting, or lying down. The ring is to be compressed and inserted into the vagina. The exact position of NuvaRing inside the vagina is not critical for its function. The vaginal ring must be inserted on the appropriate day and left in place for three consecutive weeks. This means that the ring should be removed three weeks later on the same day of the week as it was inserted and at about the same time.

NuvaRing can be removed by hooking the index finger under the forward rim or by grasping the rim between the index and middle finger and pulling it out. The used ring should be placed in the sachet (foil pouch) and discarded in a waste receptacle out of the reach of children and pets (do not flush in toilet).

After a one-week break, during which a withdrawal bleed usually occurs, a new ring is inserted on the same day of the week as it was inserted in the previous cycle. The withdrawal bleed usually starts on Day 2-3 after removal of the ring and may not have finished before the next ring is inserted. In order to maintain contraceptive effectiveness, the new ring must be inserted exactly one week after the previous one was removed even if menstrual bleeding has not finished.

2.2 How to Start Using NuvaRing

IMPORTANT: Consider the possibility of ovulation and conception prior to the first use of NuvaRing.

No Hormonal Contraceptive Use in the Preceding Cycle:

The woman should insert NuvaRing on the first day of her menstrual bleeding. NuvaRing may also be started on Days 2-5 of the woman's cycle, but in this case a barrier method, such as male condoms with spermicide, should be used for the first seven days of NuvaRing use in the first cycle.

Changing From a CHC:

The woman may switch from her previous CHC on any day, but at the latest on the day following the usual hormone-free interval, if she has been using her hormonal method consistently and correctly, or if it is reasonably certain that she is not pregnant.

Changing From a Progestin-Only Method (progestin-only pill [POP], Implant, or Injection or a Progestin-Releasing Intrauterine System [IUS]):

The woman may switch from the POP on any day; instruct her to start using NuvaRing on the day after she took her last POP. She should switch from an implant or the IUS on the day of its removal, and from an injectable on the day when the next injection would be due. In all of these cases, the woman should use an additional barrier method such as a male condom with spermicide, for the first seven days.

Use after Abortion or Miscarriage

The woman may start using NuvaRing within the first five days following a complete first trimester abortion or miscarriage, and she does not need to use an additional method of contraception. If use of NuvaRing is not started within five days following a first trimester abortion or miscarriage, the woman should follow the instructions for "No Hormonal Contraceptive Use in the Preceding Cycle." In the meantime, she should be advised to use a non-hormonal contraceptive method.

Start NuvaRing no earlier than four weeks after a second trimester abortion or miscarriage, due to the increased risk of thromboembolism. [See Contraindications (4), and Warnings and Precautions (5.1).]

Following Childbirth

The use of NuvaRing may be initiated no sooner than four weeks postpartum in women who elect not to breastfeed, due to the increased risk of thromboembolism in the postpartum period. [See Contraindications (4), and Warnings and Precautions (5.1).]

Advise women who are breastfeeding not to use NuvaRing but to use other forms of contraception until the child is weaned.

If a woman begins using NuvaRing postpartum, instruct her to use an additional method of contraception, such as male condoms with spermicide, for the first seven days. If she has not yet had a period, consider the possibility of ovulation and conception occurring prior to initiation of NuvaRing.

2.3 Deviations from the Recommended Regimen

To prevent loss of contraceptive efficacy, advise women not to deviate from the recommended regimen. NuvaRing should be left in the vagina for a continuous period of three weeks.

Inadvertent Removal or Expulsion

NuvaRing can be accidentally expelled, for example, while removing a tampon, during intercourse, or with straining during a bowel movement. NuvaRing should be left in the vagina for a continuous period of three weeks. If the ring is accidentally expelled and is left outside of the vagina for less than three hours, contraceptive efficacy is not reduced. NuvaRing can be rinsed with cool to lukewarm (not hot) water and reinserted as soon as possible, but at the latest within three hours. If NuvaRing is lost, a new vaginal ring should be inserted and the regimen should be continued without alteration.

If NuvaRing is out of the vagina for more than three continuous hours:

During Weeks 1 and 2: Contraceptive efficacy may be reduced. The woman should reinsert the ring as soon as she remembers. A barrier method such as condoms with spermicides must be used until the ring has been used continuously for seven days.

During Week 3: The woman should discard that ring. One of the following two options should be chosen:

Insert a new ring immediately. Inserting a new ring will start the next three-week use period. The woman may not experience a withdrawal bleed from her previous cycle. However, breakthrough spotting or bleeding may occur.
Insert a new ring no later than seven days from the time the previous ring was removed or expelled, during which time she may have a withdrawal bleed. This option should only be chosen if the ring was used continuously for at least seven days prior to inadvertent removal/expulsion.
In either case, a barrier method such as condoms with spermicides must be used until the new ring has been used continuously for seven days.

Prolonged Ring-Free Interval

If the ring-free interval has been extended beyond one week, consider the possibility of pregnancy, and an additional method of contraception, such as male condoms with spermicide, MUST be used until NuvaRing has been usedcontinuously for seven days.

Prolonged Use of NuvaRing

If NuvaRing has been left in place for up to one extra week (i.e., up to four weeks total), the woman will remain protected. NuvaRing should be removed and the woman should insert a new ring after a one-week ring-free interval.

If NuvaRing has been left in place for longer than four weeks, instruct the woman to remove the ring, and rule out pregnancy. If pregnancy is ruled out, NuvaRing may be restarted, and an additional method of contraception, such as male condoms with spermicide, MUST be used until a new NuvaRing has been used continuously for seven days.

Ring Breakage

There have been reported cases of NuvaRing disconnecting at the weld joint. This is not expected to affect the contraceptive effectiveness of NuvaRing. In the event of a disconnected ring, vaginal discomfort or expulsion (slipping out) is more likely to occur. If a woman discovers that her NuvaRing has disconnected, she should discard the ring and replace it with a new ring.

2.4 In the Event of a Missed Menstrual Period

If the woman has not adhered to the prescribed regimen (NuvaRing has been out of the vagina for more than three hours or the preceding ring-free interval was extended beyond one week), consider the possibility of pregnancy at the time of the first missed period and discontinue NuvaRing use if pregnancy is confirmed.
If the woman has adhered to the prescribed regimen and misses two consecutive periods, rule out pregnancy.
If the woman has retained one NuvaRing for longer than four weeks, rule out pregnancy.
2.5 Use with Other Vaginal Products

NuvaRing may interfere with the correct placement and position of a diaphragm. A diaphragm is therefore not recommended as a back-up method with NuvaRing use.

Pharmacokinetic data show that the use of tampons has no effect on the systemic absorption of the hormones released by NuvaRing.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

NuvaRing (etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring) is a non-biodegradable, flexible, transparent, colorless to almost colorless, combination contraceptive vaginal ring, with an outer diameter of 54 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4 mm. It is made of ethylene vinylacetate copolymers and magnesium stearate, and contains 11.7 mg etonogestrel and 2.7 mg ethinyl estradiol. When placed in the vagina, each ring releases on average 0.120 mg/day of etonogestrel and 0.015 mg/day of ethinyl estradiol over a three-week period of use. NuvaRing is not made with natural rubber latex.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Do not prescribe NuvaRing to women who are known to have the following:

A high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic diseases. Examples include women who are known to:
Smoke, if over age 35 [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Have deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, now or in the past [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Have cerebrovascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Have coronary artery disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Have thrombogenic valvular or thrombogenic rhythm diseases of the heart (for example, subacute bacterial endocarditis with valvular disease, or atrial fibrillation) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Have inherited or acquired hypercoagulopathies [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Have uncontrolled hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Have diabetes mellitus with vascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Have headaches with focal neurological symptoms or migraine headaches with aura [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Women over age 35 with any migraine headaches [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Liver tumors, benign or malignant or liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]
Undiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
Pregnancy, because there is no reason to use CHCs during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]
Breast cancer or other estrogen- or progestin-sensitive cancer, now or in the past [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]
Hypersensitivity to any of the components of NuvaRing [see Adverse Reactions (6)]
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Thromboembolic Disorders and Other Vascular Problems

Stop NuvaRing use if an arterial thrombotic or venous thromboembolic event (VTE) occurs. Stop NuvaRing use if there is unexplained loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions. Evaluate for retinal vein thrombosis immediately. [See Adverse Reactions (6).]

If feasible, stop NuvaRing at least four weeks before and through two weeks after major surgery or other surgeries known to have an elevated risk of thromboembolism, and during and following prolonged immobilization.

Start NuvaRing no earlier than 4 weeks after delivery, in women who are not breastfeeding. The risk of postpartum thromboembolism decreases after the third postpartum week, whereas the risk of ovulation increases after the third postpartum week.

The use of CHCs increases the risk of VTE. Known risk factors for VTE include smoking, obesity, and family history of VTE, in addition to other factors that contraindicate use of CHCs [see Contraindications (4)].

Two epidemiologic studies1, 2, 3 that assessed the risk of VTE associated with the use of NuvaRing are described below.

In these studies, which were required or sponsored by regulatory agencies, NuvaRing users had a risk of VTE similar to COC users (see Table 1 for adjusted hazard ratios). A large prospective, observational study, the Transatlantic Active Surveillance on Cardiovascular Safety of NuvaRing (TASC), investigated the risk of VTE for new users, and women who were switching to or restarting NuvaRing or COCs in a population that is representative of routine clinical users. The women were followed for 24 to 48 months. The results showed a similar risk of VTE among NuvaRing users (VTE incidence 8.3 per 10,000 WY) and women using COCs (VTE incidence 9.2 per 10,000 WY). For women using COCs that did not contain the progestins desogestrel (DSG) or gestodene (GSD), VTE incidence was 8.9 per 10,000 WY.

A retrospective cohort study using data from 4 health plans in the US (FDA-funded Study in Kaiser Permanente and Medicaid databases) showed the VTE incidence for new users of NuvaRing to be 11.4 events per 10,000 WY, for new users of a levonorgestrel (LNG)-containing COC 9.2 events per 10,000 WY, and for users of other COCs available during the course of the study1 8.2 events per 10,000 WY.

Table 1: Estimates (Hazard Ratios) of Venous Thromboembolism Risk in Users of NuvaRing Compared to Users of Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs)

Epidemiologic Study
(Author, Year of Publication)
Population Studied

Comparator Product(s)

Hazard Ratios (HR)
(95% CI)

* Includes low-dose COCs containing the following progestins: chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, desogestrel, dienogest, drospirenone, ethynodiol diacetate, gestodene, levonorgestrel, norethindrone, norgestimate, or norgestrel.

An increased risk of thromboembolic and thrombotic disease associated with the use of CHCs is well-established. Although the absolute VTE rates are increased for users of CHCs compared to non-users, the rates associated with pregnancy are even greater, especially during the post-partum period (see Figure 1).

The frequency of VTE in women using CHCs has been estimated to be 3 to 12 cases per 10,000 women-years.

The risk of VTE is highest during the first year of CHC use and after restarting a CHC following a break of at least four weeks. The risk of VTE due to CHCs gradually disappears after use is discontinued.

Figure 1 shows the risk of developing a VTE for women who are not pregnant and do not use CHCs, for women who use CHCs, for pregnant women, and for women in the postpartum period. To put the risk of developing a VTE into perspective: If 10,000 women who are not pregnant and do not use CHCs are followed for one year, between 1 and 5 of these women will develop a VTE.

Figure 1: Likelihood of Developing a VTE

Figure 1

*CHC=combination hormonal contraception

**Pregnancy data based on actual duration of pregnancy in the reference studies. Based on a model assumption that pregnancy duration is nine months, the rate is 7 to 27 per 10,000 WY.

Several epidemiology studies indicate that third generation oral contraceptives, including those containing desogestrel (etonogestrel, the progestin in NuvaRing, is the biologically active metabolite of desogestrel), may be associated with a higher risk of VTE than oral contraceptives containing other progestins. Some of these studies indicate an approximate two-fold increased risk. However, data from other studies have not shown this two-fold increase in risk.

Use of CHCs also increases the risk of arterial thromboses such as strokes and myocardial infarctions, especially in women with other risk factors for these events. CHCs have been shown to increase both the relative and attributable risks of cerebrovascular events (thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes). In general, the risk is greatest among older (>35 years of age), hypertensive women who also smoke.

Use NuvaRing with caution in women with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

1 Includes low-dose COCs containing the following progestins: norgestimate, norethindrone, or levonorgestrel.

5.2 Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

Cases of TSS have been reported by NuvaRing users. TSS has been associated with tampons and certain barrier contraceptives, and, in some cases the NuvaRing users were also using tampons. A causal relationship between the use of NuvaRing and TSS has not been established. If a patient exhibits signs or symptoms of TSS, consider the possibility of this diagnosis and initiate appropriate medical evaluation and treatment.

5.3 Liver Disease

Impaired Liver Function

Do not use NuvaRing in women with liver disease such as acute viral hepatitis or severe (decompensated) cirrhosis of the liver [see Contraindications (4)]. Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of CHC use until markers of liver function return to normal and CHC causation has been excluded [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]. Discontinue NuvaRing use if jaundice develops.

Liver Tumors

NuvaRing is contraindicated in women with benign and malignant liver tumors [see Contraindications (4)]. Hepatic adenomas are associated with CHC use. An estimate of the attributable risk is 3.3 cases per 100,000 CHC users. Rupture of hepatic adenomas may cause death through intra-abdominal hemorrhage.

Studies have shown an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in long term (>8 years) CHC users. However, the attributable risk of liver cancers in CHC users is less than one case per million users.

5.4 High Blood Pressure

NuvaRing is contraindicated in women with uncontrolled hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease [see Contraindications (4)]. For women with well-controlled hypertension, monitor blood pressure and stop NuvaRing use if blood pressure rises significantly.

An increase in blood pressure has been reported in women using CHCs and this increase is more likely in older women and with extended duration of use. The incidence of hypertension increases with increasing concentrations of progestin.

5.5 Vaginal Use

NuvaRing may not be suitable for women with conditions that make the vagina more susceptible to vaginal irritation or ulceration. Vaginal/cervical erosion or ulceration in women using NuvaRing has been reported. In some cases, the ring adhered to vaginal tissue, necessitating removal by a healthcare provider.

Some women are aware of the ring on occasion during the 21 days of use or during intercourse, and sexual partners may feel NuvaRing in the vagina.

5.6 Gallbladder Disease

Studies suggest a small increased relative risk of developing gallbladder disease among CHC users. Use of CHCs may also worsen existing gallbladder disease.

A past history of CHC-related cholestasis predicts an increased risk with subsequent CHC use. Women with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis may be at an increased risk for CHC-related cholestasis.

5.7 Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolic Effects

Carefully monitor prediabetic and diabetic women who are using NuvaRing. CHCs may decrease glucose tolerance.

Consider alternative contraception for women with uncontrolled dyslipidemia. Some women will have adverse lipid changes while on CHCs.

Women with hypertriglyceridemia, or a family history thereof, may be at an increased risk of pancreatitis when using CHCs.

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