1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia
CRESTOR is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated Total-C, LDL-C, ApoB, nonHDL‑C, and triglycerides and to increase HDL‑C in adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia. Lipid-altering agents should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol when response to diet and nonpharmacological interventions alone has been inadequate.
Pediatric Patients 10 to 17 years of age with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH)
Adjunct to diet to reduce Total‑C, LDL‑C and ApoB levels in adolescent boys and girls, who are at least one year post-menarche, 10‑17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present: LDL‑C > 190 mg/dL or > 160 mg/dL and there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) or two or more other CVD risk factors.
CRESTOR is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the treatment of adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia.
1.3 Primary Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia)
CRESTOR is indicated as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia).
1.4 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
CRESTOR is indicated as adjunctive therapy to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) or alone if such treatments are unavailable to reduce LDL‑C, Total‑C, and ApoB in adult patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
1.5 Slowing of the Progression of Atherosclerosis
CRESTOR is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to slow the progression of atherosclerosis in adult patients as part of a treatment strategy to lower Total‑C and LDL‑C to target levels.
1.6 Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
In individuals without clinically evident coronary heart disease but with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease based on age ≥ 50 years old in men and ≥ 60 years old in women, hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/L, and the presence of at least one additional cardiovascular disease risk factor such as hypertension, low HDL‑C, smoking, or a family history of premature coronary heart disease, CRESTOR is indicated to:
•reduce the risk of stroke
•reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
•reduce the risk of arterial revascularization procedures
1.7 Limitations of Use
CRESTOR has not been studied in Fredrickson Type I and V dyslipidemias.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 General Dosing Information
The dose range for CRESTOR is 5 to 40 mg orally once daily. The usual starting dose is 10‑20 mg.
CRESTOR can be administered as a single dose at any time of day, with or without food.
When initiating CRESTOR therapy or switching from another HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitor therapy, the appropriate CRESTOR starting dose should first be utilized, and only then titrated according to the patient’s response and individualized goal of therapy.
After initiation or upon titration of CRESTOR, lipid levels should be analyzed within 2 to 4 weeks and the dosage adjusted accordingly.
The 40 mg dose of CRESTOR should be used only for those patients who have not achieved their LDL‑C goal utilizing the 20 mg dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
2.2 Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Pediatric Patients (10 to 17 years of age)
The usual dose range of CRESTOR is 5‑20 mg/day; the maximum recommended dose is 20 mg/day (doses greater than 20 mg have not been studied in this patient population). Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12) and Indications and Usage (1.2)]. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.
2.3 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
The recommended starting dose of CRESTOR is 20 mg once daily. Response to therapy should be estimated from preapheresis LDL‑C levels.
2.4 Dosing in Asian Patients
In Asian patients, consider initiation of CRESTOR therapy with 5 mg once daily due to increased rosuvastatin plasma concentrations. The increased systemic exposure should be taken into consideration when treating Asian patients not adequately controlled at doses up to 20 mg/day. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.8) andClinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.5 Use with Concomitant Therapy
Patients taking cyclosporine
The dose of CRESTOR should not exceed 5 mg once daily [seeWarnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]
Patients taking gemfibrozil
Initiate CRESTOR therapy with 5 mg once daily. The dose of CRESTOR should not exceed 10 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.2), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients taking lopinavir and ritonavir or atazanavir and ritonavir
Initiate CRESTOR therapy with 5 mg once daily. The dose of CRESTOR should not exceed 10 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.3), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.6 Dosing in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment
For patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) not on hemodialysis, dosing of CRESTOR should be started at 5 mg once daily and not exceed 10 mg once daily [seeUse in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
5 mg: Yellow, round, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” and “5” on one side of the tablet.
10 mg: Pink, round, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” and “10” on one side of the tablet.
20 mg: Pink, round, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” and “20” on one side of the tablet.
40 mg: Pink, oval, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” on one side and “40” on the other side of the tablet.
CRESTOR is contraindicated in the following conditions:
•Patients with a known hypersensitivity to any component of this product. Hypersensitivity reactions including rash, pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema have been reported with CRESTOR [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
•Patients with active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations of hepatic transaminase levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
•Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant. Because HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, CRESTOR may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Additionally, there is no apparent benefit to therapy during pregnancy, and safety in pregnant women has not been established. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
•Nursing mothers. Because another drug in this class passes into breast milk, and because HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors have the potential to cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require CRESTOR treatment should be advised not to nurse their infants [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Skeletal Muscle Effects
Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including CRESTOR. These risks can occur at any dose level, but are increased at the highest dose (40 mg).
CRESTOR should be prescribed with caution in patients with predisposing factors for myopathy (e.g., age ≥ 65 years, inadequately treated hypothyroidism, renal impairment).
The risk of myopathy during treatment with CRESTOR may be increased with concurrent administration of some other lipid-lowering therapies (fibrates or niacin), gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or atazanavir/ritonavir [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Drug Interactions (7)]. Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin, coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing CRESTOR with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.7)].
CRESTOR therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated creatine kinase levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. CRESTOR therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of myopathy or predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., sepsis, hypotension, dehydration, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine, and electrolyte disorders, or uncontrolled seizures).
There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents.
All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing CRESTOR.
5.2 Liver Enzyme Abnormalities
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of CRESTOR, and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur.
Increases in serum transaminases [AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)] have been reported with HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, including CRESTOR. In most cases, the elevations were transient and resolved or improved on continued therapy or after a brief interruption in therapy. There were two cases of jaundice, for which a relationship to CRESTOR therapy could not be determined, which resolved after discontinuation of therapy. There were no cases of liver failure or irreversible liver disease in these trials.
In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, increases in serum transaminases to >3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 1.1% of patients taking CRESTOR versus 0.5% of patients treated with placebo.
There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including rosuvastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with CRESTOR, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart CRESTOR.
CRESTOR should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of chronic liver disease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent transaminase elevations, is a contraindication to the use of CRESTOR [see Contraindications (4)].
5.3 Concomitant Coumarin Anticoagulants
Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with CRESTOR because of its potentiation of the effect of coumarin-type anticoagulants in prolonging the prothrombin time/INR. In patients taking coumarin anticoagulants and CRESTOR concomitantly, INR should be determined before starting CRESTOR and frequently enough during early therapy to ensure that no significant alteration of INR occurs [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
5.4 Proteinuria and Hematuria
In the CRESTOR clinical trial program, dipstick-positive proteinuria and microscopic hematuria were observed among CRESTOR treated patients. These findings were more frequent in patients taking CRESTOR 40 mg, when compared to lower doses of CRESTOR or comparator HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, though it was generally transient and was not associated with worsening renal function. Although the clinical significance of this finding is unknown, a dose reduction should be considered for patients on CRESTOR therapy with unexplained persistent proteinuria and/or hematuria during routine urinalysis testing.
5.5 Endocrine Effects
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, including CRESTOR. Based on clinical trial data with CRESTOR, in some instances these increases may exceed the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Although clinical studies have shown that CRESTOR alone does not reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration or impair adrenal reserve, caution should be exercised if CRESTOR is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones such as ketoconazole, spironolactone, and cimetidine.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:
•Rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria and acute renal failure and myopathy (including myositis) [see Warnings and Precautions(5.1)]
•Liver enzyme abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions(5.2)]
In the CRESTOR controlled clinical trials database (placebo or active-controlled) of 5394 patients with a mean treatment duration of 15 weeks, 1.4% of patients discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation were:
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) in the CRESTOR controlled clinical trial database of 5394 patients were:
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 2% of patients in placebo-controlled clinical studies and at a rate greater than placebo are shown in Table 1. These studies had a treatment duration of up to 12 weeks.
Adverse Reactions1 Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients Treated with CRESTOR and > Placebo in Placebo‑Controlled Trials (% of Patients)
Other adverse reactions reported in clinical studies were abdominal pain, dizziness, hypersensitivity (including rash, pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema) and pancreatitis. The following laboratory abnormalities have also been reported: dipstick-positive proteinuria and microscopic hematuria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]; elevated creatine phosphokinase, transaminases, glucose, glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin; and thyroid function abnormalities.
In the METEOR study, involving 981 participants treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg (n=700) or placebo (n=281) with a mean treatment duration of 1.7 years, 5.6% of subjects treated with CRESTOR versus 2.8% of placebo-treated subjects discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation were: myalgia, hepatic enzyme increased, headache, and nausea [see Clinical Studies (14.7)].
Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 2% of patients and at a rate greater than placebo are shown in Table 2.
Adverse Reactions1 Reported in 2% of Patients Treated with CRESTOR and > Placebo in the METEOR Trial (% of Patients)
In the JUPITER study, 17,802 participants were treated with rosuvastatin 20 mg (n=8901) or placebo (n=8901) for a mean duration of 2 years. A higher percentage of rosuvastatin-treated patients versus placebo-treated patients, 6.6% and 6.2%, respectively, discontinued study medication due to an adverse event, irrespective of treatment causality. Myalgia was the most common adverse reaction that led to treatment discontinuation.
In JUPITER, there was a significantly higher frequency of diabetes mellitus reported in patients taking rosuvastatin (2.8%) versus patients taking placebo (2.3%). Mean HbA1c was significantly increased by 0.1% in rosuvastatin-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. The number of patients with a HbA1c > 6.5% at the end of the trial was significantly higher in rosuvastatin-treated versus placebo-treated patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Clinical Studies (14.8).